Final Exam Review Guide

Our final exam will cover a variety of topics, including those listed in this post. To prepare for the exam you should review assigned course readings, assignments as well as the terms and concepts outlined below.

  • Digital Color Basics
    • Pixels
    • RGB color
    • RGB hex color codes (i.e. FFCC00, 00FF00, etc)
    • CMYK color
    • Primary use for each color space
    • Resolution
    • Image families (Bitmaps vs Vectors)
    • Image formats (GIF, PNG, JPEG, PSD)
      • under what circumstances to use them
      • general properties (i.e. JPEGs are used for photographs)
      • which formats support transparency (GIF, PSD, PNG)
      • which format is often used for animation (GIF)
      • encoding system (lossy vs lossless)
    • Megapixels
  • Photoshop
    • Be able to explain what it is, how it is used, and how to get started with the core features of the package
    • Basics (layers, history, selecting content, compositing)
  • Principals
    • Processor / CPU
    • Memory / RAM
    • Long term storage devices
    • Bits vs Bytes
    • Groupings of bytes (kilobytes, megabytes, etc)
    • Operating systems & their functions
    • User interfaces
    • Working with external devices
  • Unix / Internet
    • IP addresses
    • Packet switching
    • Functions of a browser
    • Clients vs. Servers
    • Connecting to the i6 server via an FTP program
  • HTML
    • What is HTML? What does it stand for?
    • HTML Syntax (tag structure, head tag, body tag, etc.)
    • Know the basic tags we studied
      • html
      • head
      • title
      • link (for external stylesheets)
      • meta
      • body
      • p
      • strong
      • ol / ul / li
      • table / tr / td
      • div
      • img
      • a
    • Debugging a HTML document
  • CSS
    • What is CSS? What does it stand for?
    • Syntax of a CSS “rule”
    • Placement of CSS rules in a document
    • Styling a tag
    • Working with IDs and Classes
    • Using CSS rules on multiple pages throughout a site
    • The CSS box model
      (content, margin, padding & border)
    • Internal vs. Eternal styles
    • Be able to debug a CSS document
  • Dreamweaver
    • What is it?
    • Code view vs. WYSIWYG view – when to use each
    • Setting up a site in Dreamweaver
    • Hyperlinks (text based, image based, image map, absolute vs. relative, etc.)
    • Table basics
    • HTML basics (tag pairings, basic structure, etc.)
  • Audacity
    • What is it?
    • Working with sound files
    • Producing sounds
    • What is a podcast?
  • WordPress
    • What is it?
    • Setting up a new site – what is required?  (server space w/ access to PHP, source code for WordPress and a database)
    • Posts vs. Pages
    • What is a child theme?
  • Animated GIFs
    • What are they?
    • How do they work?
    • Limitations of animated GIFs
    • GIFs vs. SWFs vs. HTML5 Canvas-based animations
  • Flash
    • What is it?
    • What can you create with Flash?
    • Support for different types of media (bitmapped images, vector art, audio, etc)
    • Working with Flash assets (building shapes, organizing layers, etc)
    • Types of tweens (motion, shape, armature / poses)
    • The Flash library
    • Types of symbols (MovieClips, Buttons, Graphics)
    • Working with the timeline (keyframes, frames, empty keyframes, etc.)
    • naming symbol instances
    • (no ActionScript will be on the final)

Day 26 Wrap-Up

Download Animation Day 02 Examples ]

Shape Tweens

  • A shape tween is used to move simple shapes around the stage
  • Shape tweens can “morph” a shape from one form to another
  • Shape tweens must begin and end with a keyframe
  • Here’s how to construct a new shape tween:
    • Create a new Flash ActionScript 3.0 file (FLA)
    • Add a new layer to your timeline (Insert -> Timeline -> Layer)
    • Click on this layer inside the first frame
    • Draw a simple shape (rectangle, oval, etc)
    • Click somewhere further on in the timeline (i.e. frame 50)
    • Insert a keyframe (Insert -> Timeline -> Keyframe)
    • Modify the shape in some way in this frame (move it somewhere else, replace it with a new shape, recolor it, etc)
    • Click somewhere in-between these two keyframes on your timeline and click on Insert -> Shape Tween
    • Play your moving using Control -> Play
    • You can adjust either of the keyframes to change how the animation unfolds — you can also add new keyframes anywhere within the shape tween to “break up” the animation into another segment

Motion Tweens

  • A motion tween is used to move “complex” objects around the screen
  • In order to be moved using a motion tween the object in question MUST be in the Library of your FLA
  • Motion tweens must begin with a keyframe — you will be able to add in additional keyframes to your animation after you have set things up
  • Here’s how to get started with creating a motion tween:
    • Create a new Flash ActionScript 3.0 file (FLA)
    • Add a new layer to your timeline (Insert -> Timeline -> Layer)
    • Click on this layer inside the first frame
    • Next we need to import an image into the library of your movie. You can do this by clicking on File -> Import -> Import to Library
    • Open up your library panel – you will see that two symbols will show up. One will be called the name of your file (i.e. myimage.jpg) and the other will be called ‘Symbol 1′ or something simliar. Right-click on the Symbol 1 item and rename it something more meaningful.
    • Drag a copy of this new symbol onto the stage
    • Next, you need to define how long your animation should last. Click somewhere on the timeline (i.e. frame 50) and insert a frame (Insert -> Timeline -> Frame)
    • Click somewhere in the newly extended frame bar for this layer and click on Insert -> Motion Tween — the frame bar should turn blue
    • You can now move your object anywhere you’d like at any frame within this blue bar — Flash will automatically “tween” your item to that position. You can also change other properties on your item, such as its rotation, size and opacity / transparency.

Library Symbols

In the previous example (Motion Tweens) we imported graphics directly into your Library. You can also create new library symbols that incorporate both imported and hand-drawn objects. Here’s how to get started:

  • Click Insert -> New Symbol
  • Type in a name for your symbol, select ‘MovieClip’ as the symbol type and then click OK
  • You will notice that you are in “edit” mode for this symbol because the name of the symbol appears next to the ‘Scene 1′ hyperlink at the top left side of the screen.
  • You can now draw your own objects and add in shape tweens on the timeline for this symbol. This timeline is separate from the “main” timeline and allows you to create “movies inside of movies” in Flash.
  • You can also import graphics from outside Flash by clicking on File -> Import -> Import to Stage
  • When you are finished you can click on the ‘Scene 1′ hyperlink to return to your main movie. You can then drag copies of your newly created symbol onto the stage and animate it using a Motion Tween.

Animation in Flash

[ Download Animation Day 01 Examples ]

Anatomy of Flash

Go ahead and open up Flash. The Flash application interface is similar to that of Photoshop. Along the left side of the screen you’ll see a series of drawing tools, and to the right you will see an a white box which is called the ’stage.’ At the bottom of the screen you will see the ‘Properties’ panel for editing specific aspects of a selected object and at the right you will see a space for docking specialized editing panels. So far, so good. The main difference between the Flash interface and that of a 2D image editing program is the ‘Timeline’ that runs along the top of the screen. The timeline allows you to define changes in your images over time and thus gives you the ability to create scenes that animate.

The Timeline

The timeline is arguably one of the most important areas of the Flash interface. All visible graphics, animations, sound and video objects must appear on the timeline in order for the end user to see and / or interact with them (with the exception of graphics generated via ActionScript, but we’ll get to that in a bit!) The small rectangular boxes that extend out from the left side of the interface are called “frame” markers. Frame markers are numbered along the top of the screen for reference purposes – you will be referring to them quite often when designing animation sequences. These numbers represent time – the larger the number, the farther away the frame marker is from the beginning of the movie.

In general Flash movies run at 24 frames per second (FPS.) You can change this value by clicking on the stage and setting a new number in the ‘Frame rate’ box in the Properties panel. Under this system you can divide the total number of frames you are using by 12 to determine how long in seconds your animation will last. For example, a 36 frame animation will last 3 seconds.

We need to create some content on the timeline before we can start animating in Flash. Content can be drawn from within Flash or can be brought in from another source, such as an image, video or sound file. Content must be put into a “keyframe” on the timeline. Keyframes denote that something “new” is happening on the timeline. For example, If you wanted a ball to appear in your animation at frame 5 you could place a keyframe on frame 5 and draw a ball. If you wanted to have the ball exist for 5 frames and then disappear you would create a blank keyframe on frame 10. That way Flash would know that there was a “change” on frame 10 and that the ball was no longer to be displayed. Keyframes become very important in animation as they allow you define the “start” and “end” point of an animation sequence. Keyframes appear as little circles within a frame. If the circle is white it means that the keyframe is blank. If it is shaded it means that there is something in that frame.

You will need to create multiple layers on the timeline if you’d like to have more than one thing happen at the same time. Flash can only support one animation per layer. You can add new layers by using the ‘Insert layer’ icon in the timeline panel. Layers can be renamed and can be organized into folders for easier access.

Animation Techniques

There are two basic animation techniques in Flash – Shape Tweening and Motion Tweening. Shape Tweening should be used in the following circumstances:

  1. To move simple shapes across the screen
  2. To “morph” simple shapes into other simple shapes

Keep in mind that all animation in Flash requires that the animation take place on its own Layer, which is similar to a PhotoShop layer. If you have Flash open you should already have a layer to work with in the Timeline area named ‘Layer 1′. If you need to make more you can always click on INSERT->TIMELINE->LAYER.

Click on the small white box on layer 1 that has a small circle in it. This is Flash’s symbol for a keyframe and it tells Flash that something new exists in this frame of animation. After you’ve clicked here go ahead and use the drawing tools to draw a blue ball on the stage. You can do this by looking for the Rectangle Tool (the 8th icon down in the drawing toolbar), positioning your mouse over tool and holding down the left mouse button. After a second or two a sub-menu will appear – select the oval tool and draw a ball similar to the one below. Selecting a color using the swatches at the bottom of the drawing toolbar will cause the ball to be drawn with the fill color of your choice.

Now we want to move the ball across the stage. To do that we need to first tell Flash how long this animation should take. We measure how long animations last in Flash in terms of how many frames they take to execute. As stated above, the default speed of a Flash movie is 12 frames per second, so let’s have this ball take 2 seconds to move across the stage. Click your mouse inside Frame 24 on Layer 1 and choose INSERT->TIMELINE->KEYFRAME. Your screen will look as follows:

Now we’ve told Flash that there’s something going on in Frame 1 (a ball at the top of the screen) – we’ve also told it that nothing is happening from frame 1 to Frame 24 (as can be seen by the standard gray frames that exist on the timeline). Frame 24 has a keyframe in it, which means that something can change in the animation here. Let’s move the ball now. Make sure that you’ve got Frame 24 selected and move your ball to the bottom right of the screen. Try playing your movie now and see how it works (CONTROL->PLAY MOVIE)

See how choppy this is? In order to make it smoother we have to tell Flash to animation the frames in between the two keyframes. To do that click anywhere in-between those frames on the timeline and choose SHAPE from the TWEEN menu at the bottom of the screen. Playing your movie now will result in the following:

Note that you can change any aspect of the animation by modifying what’s going on in the keyframes. If you wanted to move the ball to the top right instead of the bottom right just move the ball in Frame 24. Playing your movie again will show the change in your animation. If you’d like the animation to take longer you can click and then click-drag the keyframe in frame 24 to a higher frame, thus adding more time in between the two keyfames. Likewise if you’d like to make it shorter you can drag the keyframes closer together.

Shape tweens also allow you to take advantage of Flash’s ability to work with vector based objects and perform what is called a ’shape morphing’ – to see this in action let’s modify your movie a bit. Click into your first frame and select your ball using the black arrow tool. Then delete the ball and replace it with a red square. Running your animation again will result in the following:

Symbols & Motion Tweening

Flash also allows you to move more complex objects across the stage, though if you were to try and move a complex object (one with many shapes, colors, etc) using the Shape Tweening technique you would be presented with a weird image morph effect going on all the time. To allow objects to ’stick together’ we have to group them in some way.

To start, open up a new Flash movie. Then click on INSERT->NEW SYMBOL. We’re going to create a ‘Movie Clip’ symbol of a Snowman, so type ‘Snowman’ into the Name blank. Then click the OK button. You’ll notice that your screen changes slightly to indicate that you are editing a symbol (see below):

The “breadcrumbs” above the timeline indicate that you are currently inside Scene 1 of your movie, editing the ‘Snowman’ symbol. You can get back to Scene 1 by clicking on its name (it acts similarly to a hyperlink.) You can also use the ‘Library’ on the right side of the screen to edit symbols – just double click on symbol to go into “editing” mode.

Okay, so we’re in editing mode for our little Snowman. Go ahead and draw a snowman similar to the one below on the stage:

Click on the ‘Scene 1′ hyperlink to get back to scene 1 of your movie. Click on the keyframe on layer 1 and drag a copy of your Snowman out of the library and onto the stage. Go to frame 24 and create a frame — then right click in the range and select CREATE MOTION Tween. Move the Snowman across the screen on the last frame — this will automatically add in a keyframe to the layer. Your movie should look something like this:

You have some additional options at your disposal for motion tweens that can be defined using the properties panel. For example, if you want the snowman to rotate while moving you can use the ‘Rotate’ drop down to define which direction and number of rotations to apply to the tween. You can also modify the symbol at either keyframe to change how the animation takes place – for example, a popular effect is to “scale” the snowman down to a smaller (or larger) size to simulate the object getting bigger (or smaller) over time. You can also click on the symbol and use the ‘Color’ dropdown to change color aspects – the most popular effect here is to change the Alpha (opacity) of the image to simulate it fading in or out as can be seen below:

Using Sound and Music

Flash makes it easy to include sound and music in your projects. The first step to using audio is to obtain a music file. Flash works best with MP3 files, but you can use other files in a pinch. Keep in mind that adding lots of music to your movies will cause the final file size to increase dramatically. A good place to find audio files is at the Flash Kit Loops Library. This library of audio files are designed to be “looped” over and over to provide a seamless background track for your movie.

Once you have a file downloaded to your machine you can bring it into Flash by clicking on FILE -> IMPORT -> IMPORT TO LIBRARY. The audio file will appear in your library listing and you can use the ‘Play’ button over in the library interface to preview the sound.

Sounds need to go onto the timeline just like everything else in Flash. I like to create an entirely separate layer for sounds. Once you have a layer you can drag the file out onto the stage – it won’t show up as a visual object there, but you’ll know you did it right if the timeline indicates that there is a “waveform” present on the layer. Click on this waveform and look at the properties panel. The ‘Sync’ property allows you to define how the sound will play within your movie. Setting this to ‘Event’ will play the sound as a high quality sound but will not guarantee that the sound will always synchronize with the animation that is happening on other layers. Changing this to ‘Stream’ will force the sound to synchronize with the timeline, though the quality may be slightly less than if you set it to ‘Event.’ For purposes of the Music Video assignment you should use the ‘Stream’ property.

Testing Your Movie

The best way to test your movie is through the CONTROL -> TEST MOVIE command. This command lets you see how your movie will appear once it is “published” (see below). It also removes “housekeeping” items, such as motion guides, and crops the edge of your movie so that you only see objects that are actively on the stage. From this point forward when we will be using this technique in lieu of the CONTROL -> PLAY command.

Publishing Your Movie

When you’re all done you’ll probably want to do something with your movie other than watch it within Flash. Thankfully Flash exports itself into a number of very compatible formats. To export your movie you should first save it and then click on FILE -> PUBLISH SETTINGS. HTML and SWF should be checked – these are the default web compatible formats. You can also export Flash as a Quicktime movie if you’d like to import it into a more comprehensive video editing package, or use the Windows or Mac projector file to create a self executable file that can be played without any special software (SWF files need the free Flash plug in in order to play).

Once you’ve published your file you can link it to your web site fairly easily depending on your preferred web publishing package. In Dreamweaver you can open up an HTML page and click on Insert -> Media -> SWF and then browse to find your SWF file. The file will be copied to your site directory and will be embedded onto the current page.

If you’re not using Dreamweaver you can still easily import a Flash SWF onto your page. For example, popular web-based content management systems (such as WordPress) contain a ‘Insert Embedded Media’ button in their authoring interface. If you selected HTML in the Publish Settings menu you will also be given a “wrapper” document that contains all the HTML code necessary to to put your Flash creation on a website. You can copy and paste this code onto your own site (don’t forget to upload the SWF file as well!) – you could also just upload the HTML file and SWF files to your site and create a link to the HTML file.

Day 25 Wrap-Up

Download Animated GIF source files ]

Today we discussed the concept of digital animation and explored how a computer can be instructed to render animated content.  Here’s a detailed overview of what we covered:

  1. The Animated GIF is one of the most basic forms of digital animation.  It can be thought of as an old-school “flip-book” animation — In order to simulate the illusion of motion it is necessary to construct a file that contains individual images for each “frame” of animation.  For example, if you wanted to create an animation of a ball bouncing up and down you would have to prepare version of the ball in many different positions.  To get a very smooth animation you would probably need 20 or 30 different images.  After this has been accomplished, the images need to be assembled together into a self-contained package that can easily be inserted into a web page.
  2. The most common type of basic animation is the animated GIF file. Some examples can be seen below:


    As you can see, Animated GIFs give you the ability to display motion graphics and are easily inserted into existing web sites in the form of an image file. However, animated graphics by nature are much larger than their “static” cousins. This occurs because you are effectively adding an additional graphic (or frame) for each bit of motion you wish to simulate. Animated graphics do not allow for any interactivity, nor do they allow you to incorporate any additional media capabilities, including an audio track.  Animated GIFs may or may not loop (i.e. replay at the end) but they do support image transparency like a PNG file, which means you aren’t stuck with a white background behind your images if you don’t want one.
  3. You can use Photoshop to create simple Animated GIF files.  Here’s how to get started:
    1. Simple frame based animation
      1. Create a new Document in Photoshop
      2. Add in assets on different layers (in our example we added in text layers that contained the text “three …”, “two …”, “one …” and “blast off!”
      3. Next, open up the Timeline panel (Window -> Timeline)
      4. Use the drop down menu and select “Create Frame Based Animation” – click this button to continue
      5. Now you have a single frame that is visible in the Timeline panel.  Make all of your layers invisible except for your layer that contains the text “three …”
      6. Click the Add Frame button in the Timeline panel.  With this frame selected, make the layers that contain the text “three … ” and “two …” visible.
      7. Continue the process so that you are making one new layer visible for each frame of animation.
      8. Click the play button in the Timeline panel to see your project – it should run very quickly!  You can set the timing for each frame by using the timing drop down menu below each frame in the Timeline panel.
      9. You can save your project by clicking File -> Save for Web and Devices.  Make sure that you are saving your file as a GIF file.
    2. Tweening Animation
      1. With Tweening we can have Photoshop prepare certain kinds of animated transitions for us.
      2. In our example we created a new file that contained three layers – a rocketship, a background and a planet.
      3. We then created a new animation by clicking on the Create Frame Based Animation button in the Timeline panel
      4. Next, we added a new frame and moved the rocketship to a different spot on the screen.
      5. We then clicked the “Tweens Animation Frames” button on the Timeline panel – this tells Photoshop to create a number of “intermediate” frames that will “bridge” your two “keyframes” of animation.  Photoshop can tween object locations, opacity and layer effects.
      6. The more frames you add in this way the smoother your animation, but the larger the resulting file.
    3. You can easily place an animated GIF on your website by inserting a standard <img> tag to point to your newly created image file.

The ‘canvas’ tag and ProcessingJS

Note:  This is not a ‘standard’ topic in Intro to Web Design!  You won’t be tested on this … it’s just an ‘FYI’ topic that shows you some ways in which we can create responsive / interactive graphical applications for the web.

If you do want to follow along here is some source code to get you started. Also note that these concepts are covered in greater detail in other CS classes, including Introduction to Computer Programming, Introduction to Computer Science and many of our special topics courses.

 

Editing Digital Audio Files with Audacity

Audacity is an audio editing program that allows you to record, mix, and add special effects to your sound files. It is completely open-source, and is available at http://audacity.sourceforge.net/. Here’s how you can get started with a new audacity project:

  1. Open up Audacity. A screen similar to the following will appear:

  2. Make sure that you have a microphone installed. You can use the built-in microphone on your laptop if need be, but a USB powered external microphone will really help to make your audio come out crisp and clear.
  3. Click on the record button (#1) and begin speaking. A waveform will begin to appear (#2) as your voice is detected by the microphone.
  4. Click on the stop button (#3) in order to stop the recording.
  5. Click the rewind button (#4) and play button (#5) to listen to your recording.
  6. To trim your recording make sure that the selection tool is clicked (#6) – then highlight the portion of the audio that you would like to cut. Click on Edit->Cut to extract the selected area.
  7. To record a second clip, click the record button (#2) – a second waveform will appear beneath the first.
  8. To reposition a clip, click on the slider tool (#7) and slide the desired clip back and forth.
  9. Using the volume adjustment tool (#8) you can increase or decrease the volume of a specific clip.
  10. Your can import other audio files (WAV, MP3) by clicking on Project -> Import Audio. The audio file will appear as a new waveform. Here is a small collection of sound effect files to get you started.
  11. You can also apply special effects to your audio clips – this can be accomplished by selecting a portion of a clip using the selection tool (#6) and then using the Effect menu.
  12. When you are finished working on your clip you should save your project by clicking on File -> Save.
  13. You can export your project as an MP3 file by clicking on File -> Export as MP3. Note that Audacity does not come pre-loaded with MP3 export capabilities – you can add this feature into the system by installing the free LAME MP3 Conversion Library (available here).

With your newly created MP3 file you can create a soundtrack to a video, remix a song or even create your own podcast.

Day 21 Wrap-Up

WordPress

  • WordPress is an example of what we would call a “dynamic” website
  • When you visit a WordPress site (like this course webpage) the content that you see is constructed for you “on the fly” – a program is executed on the web server that creates a brand new website for you each time it is visited.
  • Because the “moving parts” happen on the server we often refer to this as “back end” web development (as opposed to “front end” web development which happens in the client’s browser)
  • There are a few major technological components that go into a WordPress site, including:
    • HTML & CSS (Templates for your site)
    • MySQL Database (Repository to store all of the content for your site)
    • Application Code (written in a language called PHP – used to combine the templates and the content from the database in real-time)

Working with WordPress

Before you can use WordPress you need to install it onto your i6 account.  Complete directions on how to do this can be found here:  http://i6.cims.nyu.edu/~kapp/wordpressinstall/

  1. Visit your WordPress URL – it should look something like this:
    http://i6.cims.nyu.edu/~NETID/wordpress
  2. This is the “public” view of your blog and is what people from around the world can see when they view your site.  You can make changes to your site by clicking on the “Log In” link on the right side of the screen and supplying your username and password information.  Note:  if you can’t find the “Log In” link you can go directly to your blog’s login page by visiting this URL (just replace “blogname” with the name of your blog):
    http://i6.cims.nyu.edu/~NETID/wordpress/wp-admin/
  3. Once you successfully log in you will be redirected to your “dashboard” – this is your “mission control center” that lets you control all aspects of your blog.
  4. You can switch between Dashboard mode and Public View mode by using the link at the top of the screen that contains your blog title.  Here’s a screen shot that points this out for you:

    Switch to "public" view from "dashboard" view

  5. Likewise, when you are in Public View mode you can switch back to Dashboard mode by clicking on the “Dashboard” link at the top of the screen.

    Switch to "dashboard" view from "public" view

  6. Some people find it easier to keep two “tabs” of their web browser open so that both Dashboard and Public View modes are visible at the same time.  You can do this by right-clicking on the Dashboard link from Public View mode and selecting “open in new tab”.  On a Mac you can hold down the Control key and click on link to do this as well.  Note that if you do this you will need to “refresh” your browser every time you make a change in Dashboard mode.  You can refresh your browser by clicking on the “refresh” or “reload” key at the top of your browser window, near the web address bar.

Once you can log into your site you will want to explore what the WordPress CMS can do.  The complete documentation package for this unit can be found here:  http://i6.cims.nyu.edu/~kapp/wordpressinstall/, and here are some of the highlights that we covered in class:

  • Creating new “pages” for your site
  • Maintaining a “blog” on your site (“posts”)
  • Uploading media to your site (images)
  • Changing the visual look and feel of your site (managing themes)

Day 20 Wrap-Up

Today we discussed a number of non-Dreamweaver related web development topics, including:

  1. Buying a website
    1. At some point you will want to branch out beyond the i6 server here at NYU
    2. In order to do this you will need to work with a commercial company to secure your own little corner of the World Wide Web, which includes two things:
      1. Finding and leasing a domain name (“mysite.com”, etc)
      2. “Renting” space on a web server that will “host” your HTML & CSS content for you
    3. Obtaining a domain name
      1. Most web hosting companies, such as GoDaddy, HostMonster and Media Temple, allow you to purchase the rights to use a domain name
      2. You can purchase the rights to a domain name for a period of years (generally 1-2)
      3. You don’t own the domain – you simply have exclusive rights to it for a period of time. You will need to renew your access to the domain at the end of your term. Otherwise you will forfeit the domain and it will be returned back to the public domain for someone else to purchase.
      4. The company you purchase a domain from doesn’t own the domain either – they license the domain via the international ICANN organization which serves as the world’s clearinghouse for domain names
    4. Obtaining web hosting
      1. Once you have a domain name you can then obtain a hosting account for it
      2. Hosting allows you to “rent” space on someone else’s computer – they will set you up with all the things you need to publish a website (FTP access, a public_html folder, etc). You supply them with your domain name and they connect the two together to create your web hosting solution.
      3. It’s usually easiest to buy a domain and set up hosting at the same time.
  2. CMS Frameworks
    1. Building a website can be a labor of love, but it can also be time consuming to maintain your work after you’ve built the initial design. Also, it can be difficult to build a site for a client and then give them the ability to maintain it – the client would need to know about HTML & CSS in order to make changes to the site.
    2. In order to deal with these issues many people turn to “frameworks”, aka CMS or Content Management Systems
    3. WordPress is the world’s most popular framework – you can check it out at http://www.wordpress.org
    4. WordPress uses a server side “scripting” language (called PHP) to create dynamic websites based off of pre-written HTML & CSS templates
    5. It allows a user to focus on the development of content for a website and not worry so much about the design
    6. If you ever need to change the design later on you can simply create a new template!
    7. We will be spending time over the next two classes exploring what WordPress can do.  For now, check out my comprehensive guide to working with WordPress on the i6 server